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osi model vs tcp/ip model

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Introduction : The networking industry has a standard 7 layer model for network protocol architecture called OSI model. Layers of OSI model and TCP/IP model provide similar functionalities in computer networking. The major difference between OSI model and TCP-IP model is OSI has 7 layers where as TCP-IP has 4 layers. Similarities between the OSI and TCP/IP model. Data communication is still possible with OSI even without making the data go through the network, session, and presentation layers. TCP/IP appears simpler because it has fewer layers. TCP/IP advantages and disadvantages. TCP/IP is the most widely used model as compared to the OSI model for providing communication between computers over the internet. The Open Systems Interconnection Basic Reference Model (OSI Model) is an abstract description for network protocol design, developed as an effort to standardize networking. With that said, the TCP/IP network model matches the standard layered network model as it should. TCP/IP model is a protocol-oriented standard. The following figure shows the relationship between the OSI model and the TCP/IP model. Both were published in 1980s. TCP/IP does not have a clear distinction between these three. OSI model distinguishes the three concepts, namely, services, interfaces, and protocols. TCP/IP combines the presentation and session layer into its application layer. TCP/IP transport layer using UDP does not always guarantee reliable delivery of packets as the transport layer in the OSI model does. Development of both models was started in early 1970s. Manufacturers added support for one or both in their devices in 1990s. TCP/IP combines the OSI data link and physical layers into one layer. So, if someone is focusing on a more modular network with proper functionalities, they should go for the TCP/IP model. OSI vs. TCP/IP Model. Hence, the OSI model is more modular then the TCP/IP model, and the functionalities of each module are clearly specified in the OSI model. OSI model gives guidelines on how communication needs to be done, while TCP/IP protocols layout standards on which the Internet was developed. But, OSI reference model has seven layers. Originally TCP/IP model was a four layered model, and later updated to a five layered model. OSI Model vs TCP/IP Model (which one is better and why TCP/IP is used instead of the OSI) Both TCP/IP and OSI are networking reference models. A key difference between the models is that TCP/IP is simpler, collapsing several OSI layers into one: OSI layers 5, 6, 7 are combined into one Application Layer in TCP/IP But the OSI model has more layers(7) as compared to the TCP/IP model(5 layers). The TCP/IP network model represents reality in the world, whereas the OSI mode represents an ideal. While reading about the OSI and TCP/IP model for communication i came across the terms like OSI model follows vertical approach while TCP/IP model followed a horizontal approach.Can somebody explain what does vertical and horizontal approach here mean. The Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is older than the OSI model and was created by the US Department of Defense (DoD). The TCP/IP network model has four basic layers: Meanwhile, with the OSI model, only the first three layers (physical, data link, and network) are compulsory. The TCP/IP model is notably simpler as it has fewer layers. The last two layers of the OSI model map to the network layer of the TCP/IP model. Below list shows comparison between TCP/IP and OSI models. In this article, I will present the differences between the DoD and the OSI models and then provide details about the DoD's version of TCP/IP. 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